Participative mind-mapping (10’)
We’ll do a participative mind-mapping with the word “culture”. Pax will share with the facilitators the words they think are linked to “culture”.Then facilitators will summarize those results and will complete some missing words (if it’s the case) in order to give a large meaning of culture.
Culture, the iceberg and onion models (20’)
Ask Pax if they are familiarized with the models and if so, let them explain them. Then facilitators will complete the concepts if needed.
The Facilitators present a board/flipchart with pre-drawn circles representing the layers of the onion model. Pax will think about their own culture (nationality, work, hobbies, volunteering, etc.) and they will find the items that define it for each layer, write them down on post-it and stick them in the corresponding circle.
If Pax have difficulty finding these items, facilitators can help them by asking questions or by explaining the model again. After 10 min Pax will share their findings. After reading and discussing the cultural elements, the pax will be asked to classify.
If Pax have difficulty finding these items, facilitators can help them by asking questions or by explaining the model again. After 10 min Pax will share their findings. After reading and discussing the cultural elements, the pax will be asked to classify these elements as visible or invisible, according to the iceberg model.
Explain to Pax that every level in the culture construction might be different, therefore, every person might have a different culture. And if they find someone with a different culture, maybe they could experience stereotypes, bias, and prejudice.
Information, stereotype, bias, and prejudice (15’)
Explain the concepts of information, stereotype, bias, and prejudice showing the graphics of Mr. Cat and Mr. Chicken.
Facilitators will explain that the interpretation of those concepts can be materialized in jokes, which reflect the stereotypes that we have in our mindset.
Coming up with stereotype jokes (10’)
Pax will individually write in post-it notes on Mural 2 stereotype jokes in 5 minutes. Jokes will later be read out loud. Calm music will play in the background. After the writing is a short debriefing session.
How did it feel writing these jokes? (aim to feel guilt, anger, sadness, etc.)
Method type: Clustering / Group exercises
Theory of humor (10’)
The four styles of humor are presented (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating)
Self-enhancing and self-defeating humor consists of statements intended by the person making the joke to lift themselves up or bring themselves down respectively. We will not focus on these types of humor since they are self-referential and do not help us understand the impact of making jokes about others, which is the aim of this workshop.
Affiliative humor is defined as humor that is intended to elicit laughter and/or other forms of amusement in targets. Functions proposed for this type of humor include the reduction of tension and conflict among interactants, the garnering of social support, and the provision of perspective on life’s problems. The basic themes of this type of humor center on integration, equality, and inclusion. Aggressive humor is any humor that provides negative information about someone or something. Several functions have been proposed for this type of humor, including venting feelings of hostility, sending a “corrective” message to those who are violating group norms, and enhancing feelings of superiority over others. The basic themes of this type of aggressive humor center on division, hierarchy, and control.
Security Theory of Humor: Affiliative humor centers on themes of inclusion and equality. Given that a low degree of ethnocentrism should imply openness and tolerance toward those of different cultures, it is predicted that a negative relationship exists between ethnocentrism and affiliative humor.
Aggressive humor, by definition, involves the use of humor to put others down. The use of disparaging speech is a way of creating distance between cultural members. Insofar as ethnic humor may be considered a form of disparagement, it is expected that ethnocentrism is positively associated with aggressive humor.
Categorising the jokes (15’)
Pax will take the post-it notes on Mural 1 with jokes from the previous activity and individually think about in which type of humor they would place each joke. Afterward, pax will present their jokes, place them on a Mural 2 (divided into 2: affiliative jokes and aggressive jokes), and explain why they chose that category.
- Why are these jokes categorised as affiliative while those are aggressive (the idea that affiliative jokes create a positive image of the culture while aggressive negative)?
- How do you think a person from the joked culture would feel?
- How do you think aggressive jokes affect the targeted culture? How do you think stereotype jokes affect the opinions of those outside the culture?